If neural and hormonal mechanisms were the sole cause of aggression, we would see a worldwide distribution of aggression. In our evolutionary past, loss of status could be harmful for survival and reproduction. A disadvantage of the theory of hormonal mechanisms as an explanation of aggression is that as all the research is Correlational, we cannot prove causality.
In the EEA, we Evolutionary explanations of aggression to live in small groups and status was very important. Assuming the aggression is simply caused by your genetic make up or because its adaptive to be aggressive is too simple.
Also, another problem with using animals to research testosterone affects is that certain brain structures are involved with different types of aggression in different species.
There seems to be a critical period early in life, where exposure to testosterone is essential to elicit aggression in adulthood. This is further emphasised by individual differences which the evolutionary theory cannot account for, such as why males react differently with the same Evolutionary explanations of aggression problem.
For example, it is now common for males to adopt a child, even though it has no adaptive advantage for them because their genes are not being passed on, but they are committing cuckoldry.
Wilson found that women who said their partners did use these tactics were twice as likely to suffer violence from that partner.
You can sort the problem out before violence occurs. A third cause could be sexual jealousy. Individuals are more likely to under-report undesirable behaviour such as aggression and over-report desirable behaviour leading to invalid findings. Dopamine is the other neurotransmitter associated with aggression however, unlike serotonin, high levels of dopamine are associated with increased aggression.
Sexual jealousy is often the reason for aggression as males experience paternal uncertainty, thus Evolutionary explanations of aggression not want to unwittingly invest resources in offspring that are not his own. Under this explanation Uroxide is an unintended consequence of the evolutionary adaptation designed to control, not kill.
Outline male behaviours to control women. Although this is not the case now, the gene may still exist, so there has been a genome lag which is causing aggression in humans. A loss of status could have had catastrophic results on reproductive potential and resources.
Also explain that men may kill other men because of social competition including competition for a mate. Although castration research can be useful, castration disrupts other hormone systems as well as testosterone and os these may be playing a part in the reduced aggression.
The adaptive functions of aggression in sexual jealousy are to deter women from sexual infidelity and minimise the risk of cuckoldry. If, as is suggested above, homicide is an evolved behaviour then it is very likely that the ability to defend against murder has also evolved, such as being able to read the signs of homicidal intent.
There must, therefore, be an alternative explanation that takes into account the fact that men may have naturally aggressive responses to female infidelity, but that also explains why many men do not behave violently and others do.
Female victims of partner rap are likely to have engaged in extra-marital sex Shields et al. Men also tended to use emotional manipulation as a mate retention technique.
Discuss the alternative argument to the accidental nature of uxoricide and state why it may be an intentional act. A meta-analysis of 29 studies examined neurotransmitter levels in antisocial children and adults. Nature nurture debate Evolutionary explanations argue that behaviour has evolved through gene selection and is therefore biological.
So men have evolved to become jealous, ensuring there is as little chance as possible of cuckoldry. Mate retention This jealously will often manifest itself in a number of strategies that men use to keep a mate loyal. However as these findings come from animal studies, we cannot apply it to humans and so we cannot learn much about human behaviour from this specific experiment.
However, much research of infidelity is alpha biased by maximising the differences between male and female behaviour in sexual jealousy.
Antipsychotics which reduce dopamine however, have been shown to reduce aggression, thus supporting this explanation. Bertram found that lions killed the offspring of other males to ensure a higher likelihood of his own offspring surviving and his genes being passed on.
So, the inability to attract a long term partner and a lack of resources appears to lead to social competition and therefore aggression. Direct guarding could be coming home from work early to check on the partner, or reading their texts.
Neurotransmitters are chemical that allow impulses in one area of the brain to be transmitted to another area. Sexual jealousy is a further motivator in male-male homicide. For example when levels of testosterone peak around the start of puberty there is also a corresponding level of aggression displayed in young males during this time.
In animals particularly, the influence of testosterone on dominance behaviour might be shown through aggressiveness. The evolution of human aggression Evolutionary psychologists argue that reproductive challenges faced by our ancestors can explain the aggressive behaviour seen in people today.
Both neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression are the biological approach and so both are reductionist. Outline uxoricide as an accidental killing when control has gone too far.
Uxorocide Uxorocide is wife-killing.Evolutionary explanations of human aggression (2) 1. Aggression as an Adaptive ResponseDescribe + Evaluate 2 evolutionary explanations of aggression: mi-centre.comlity & jealousy mi-centre.com Evolution of murder 2.
Evolutionary psychologists argue that reproductive challenges faced by our ancestors can explain the aggressive behaviour seen in people today. A man can never be certain that he is the father of his wife’s children unless he.
Discuss Evolutionary Explanations of Human Aggression Essay Sample. One evolutionary explanation of human aggression is sexual jealousy.
Infidelity triggers sexual jealousy which is an evolved adaptive response to infidelity. Discuss evolutionary explanations of human aggression (8marks + 16 marks) Aggression is a behaviour directed towards another intended to harm or injure. Evolutionary theories of aggression explain that aggression is an adaptive response in terms of the individual’s survival and pro-creation, which creates a drive within a person to be aggressive.
Evolutionary psychologists attempt to understand human behavior by studying the role of evolutionary pressures on modern humans. One of the most interesting areas of study for evolutionary psychologists is human aggression.
May 15, · The evolutionary explanations say that aggression is driven by our need to reproduce with a suitable partner, when something such as infidelity or cuckoldry threatens this we act in an aggression manner.Download